A Guide to Practical Toxicology: Evaluation, Prediction, and by David Woolley, Visit Amazon's Adam Woolley Page, search

By David Woolley, Visit Amazon's Adam Woolley Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Adam Woolley,

This useful, uncomplicated, and informative textual content surveys uncomplicated ideas of toxicology. it really is a useful advisor to comparing toxicity and similar facts, drawing close toxicity trying out and interpretation, and figuring out the recommendations of threat prediction and threat review and management.

A advisor to useful Toxicology:

  • examines how you can assessment quite a few teams of chemicals—pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and agrochemicals
  • provides insights on toxicity selection, normality and naturality, prediction, and regulation

Two all-new chapters cover:

  • safety pharmacology
  • evaluation of alternative chemical classes
  • Show description

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Additional resources for A Guide to Practical Toxicology: Evaluation, Prediction, and Risk, Second Edition

Example text

This type of study may also be used to seek explanations for toxicities seen in patients or workers in particular industries. r To investigate or validate new methods of testing or investigation, particularly those conducted in vitro rather than in animals. The last point is particularly important, as the extensive use of animals in toxicological experiments is increasingly questioned. There is a considerable dilemma here; animals offer a whole multiorgan system, in which to conduct experiments and the interrelationships of the various organs can be investigated in a way that cannot be investigated (at present) in a single cell or tissue system in a static vessel.

Although the individual nucleotides of the inserted genes and the resulting amino acids from their protein products will be absorbed, they will be biochemically equivalent to the natural nucleotides and amino acids and will, as such, be indistinguishable from them. Where insertion is intended to express a small molecule that can be absorbed intact or have local effects in the gastrointestinal tract, there may be greater risks to consumers. Much debate was caused by reports of the effects of genetically modified potatoes that expressed a lectin from snowdrops as a countermeasure to attack by insects and nematodes.

However, absorption tends to be variable and this, together with a steep dose–response curve, makes therapy more hazardous than is desirable. With the advent of modern pharmaceutical research, new cardioactive agents were discovered that are safer than digitalis, especially the calcium channel blockers, such as verapamil, diltiazem, or nifedipine. These have dose– response curves that are less steep than digitalis-like drugs and so are easier to use because the toxic dose is appreciably higher than the therapeutic dose.

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