By Tianjin Library
A Pictorial list of the Qing Dynasty - Rivers and websites, contains significant different types of maps: river maps and maps of old sites.China was once an agrarian society in the course of medieval occasions, and harnessing rivers performed a massive function in maintaining social improvement. A Compendium on Harnessing Rivers, which was once accomplished within the forty second yr of Emperor Kangxi s reign (1703), encompasses a huge variety of useful photos compiled and edited through Zhang Penghe, the governor-general answerable for rivers. The e-book additionally comprises maps of varied rivers drawn via nameless artists. They list the vicissitudes of rivers and components alongside the banks whereas whilst realistically tracing the shapes of urban partitions, locations of ancient curiosity, and wonder spots alongside the rivers.As a mom river of the chinese language state, the Yellow River has continuously been the point of interest of a lot cognizance, leading to extra historical chinese language maps of this river than the other in China. This publication collects many maps of the Yellow River made throughout the past due Qing interval, such a lot of which additionally list in writing the dates of the crevasse and the closure of a undeniable element of the river and the deployment of squaddies guarding it. a whole Map of the Yellow River inside of Shandong, A Map of the Yellow River in the complete Province of Shandong, A Concise entire Map of the Yellow River inside of Shandong are one of the maps provided during this book.Other maps on hand contain Maps of the Rivers below Baoding Prefecture, Maps of the Rivers less than Zhengding Prefecture, and Maps of the Rivers below the 5 Prefectures of Zhili Ji, Zhao, Shen, Ding, and Yi.In addition, there are 3 maps of ancient curiosity: Maps of His Majesty s transitority residing Palaces on His go back trip, Maps of Dagu Batteries, and Illustrations of Wendeng, Weihai, and different old Sites..KEY beneficial properties- Rivers and websites is the 3rd e-book in A Pictorial list of the Qing Dynasty sequence. the opposite 3 books are entitled enterprise files (Released may possibly 2008), previous Manchu Capital (Released June 2008), and Manchurian Railway (to be liberate November 2008).- inclusive of over four hundred maps that seem in chronological order in ten different types, every one embellished with coloured drawings.- unique photographs and entire colour
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27 is applicable within the layer ranging from 10 cm to 20– 80 m above the ground surface, the friction velocity u* in this layer equals to the surface friction velocity u*0. In our following discussion, we will use u* instead of u*0. In addition, in the neutral situation, we can further use ρ to replace ρ0 and neglect the small variation of air density. 2 Aerodynamic Roughness Aerodynamic roughness z0 indicates the abated effect of the ground surface on the wind velocity at a certain height above the ground where wind velocity is zero.
1967) found that, in the direction of flow, there naturally exist alternatively distributed low and high velocity stripes in the near wall area. The low velocity stripes gradually move downstream, moving further away from the wall and upward. Having reached the buffer layer, the stripes vibrate violently and eventually break into small-scale structures. This process is the so called ‘burst’ process. After the upcast of the low velocity stripes, the upper high velocity fluid volume elements subside rapidly.
Large eddies in the boundary layer causes this burst to subsidence process, which is named by Kline et al. (1967) as coherent structure exhibit this process. For atmospheric boundary layer flows, Re ≈ 108 (Wyngaard 1992). Hence the atmospheric boundary layer flows are almost always turbulent. When the wind velocity in the open air exceeds 1 m·s–1, the air movement must be turbulent, no matter how smoothly the wind seems to pass by (Bagnold 1941). Therefore, the air flows which cause moving sand in the near surface layer are nearly all turbulent (Pettijohn et al.