A Stochastic Grammar of Images by Song-Chun Zhu, David Mumford

By Song-Chun Zhu, David Mumford

A Stochastic Grammar of pictures is the 1st booklet to supply a foundational assessment and point of view of grammatical techniques to laptop imaginative and prescient. In its quest for a stochastic and context delicate grammar of pictures, it really is meant to function a unified frame-work of illustration, studying, and popularity for quite a few item different types. It starts off out through addressing the old tendencies within the zone and overviewing the most suggestions: equivalent to the and-or graph, the parse graph, the dictionary and is going directly to studying matters, semantic gaps among symbols and pixels, dataset for studying and algorithms. The concept grammar offered integrates 3 favourite representations within the literature: stochastic grammars for composition, Markov (or graphical) types for contexts, and sparse coding with primitives (wavelets). It additionally combines the structure-based and visual appeal dependent equipment within the imaginative and prescient literature. on the finish of the evaluation, 3 case stories are awarded to demonstrate the proposed grammar. A Stochastic Grammar of pictures is a crucial contribution to the literature on established statistical versions in laptop imaginative and prescient.

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For a set of parts in an image S = V , the hinge relation is a set Ehinge (S) = {(Ai , Aj ; γ(Ai , Aj ), ρ(Ai , Aj ))}. 5) Here γ is the hinge point and ρ = nil. In a butting relation, γ(Ai , Aj ) represents the line segment(s) shared by the two parts. 1. Sometimes, two parts may share two line segments. For example the handle of a teapot or cup share two line segments with the body. Relation type 3: Object interactions and semantics. When letters are grouped into words, semantic meanings emerge.

Fu depicted an ambitious program for scene understanding using grammars. 11. Similar image understanding systems were also studied in the 1970–1980s [33, 54] The hierarchical representation on the right is exactly the sort of parse graph that we are pursuing today. 7 Previous Work in Image Grammars 37 Fig. 11 A parser tree for a block world from [22]. The ellipses represents non-terminal nodes and the squares are for terminal nodes. The parse tree is augmented into a parse graph with horizontal connections for relations, such as one object supporting the other, or two adjacent objects sharing a boundary.

This can be expressed as an SCFG. Let S denote a scene, A an image base, and a, b, c the different bases. S → An , n ∼ p(n) ∝ e−λo n , A → a(θ) | b(θ) | c(θ), θ ∼ p(θ) ∝ e−λ|α| , where p(θ) is uniform for location, orientation and scale. Crouse et al. [13] introduce a Markov tree hierarchy for the image bases and this produces an SCFG. 1 The Hierarchic Visual Vocabulary — The “Lego Land” In English dictionaries, a word not only has a few attributes, such as meanings, number, tense, and part of speech, but also a number of ways to connect with other words in a context.

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