By Luo F.L., Ye H.
There are a number of households of DC/DC converters comprising enormous quantities of alternative topologies. Sorting in the course of the a variety of homes and features is clearly a frightening job. Culled from the pages of the groundbreaking complex DC/DC Converters, this e-book offers a concentrated, concise evaluation of greater than 50 topologies of multi-quadrant converters. All elements of those topologies are illustrated via designs built by means of the authors over the years. The e-book starts with multiple-quadrant converters via switched part (SC and SI) converters, multiple-lift push-pull switched-capacitor converters, and eventually, multiple-quadrant soft-switching converters.
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V1 and V2 are positive, and I1 and I2 are positive as well. The second quadrant is called the forward regenerative (Forw. ) braking operation. V1 and V2 are positive, and I1and I2 are negative. The third quadrant is called the reverse motoring (Rev. ) operation. V1 and I1 are positive, and V2 and I2 are negative. The fourth quadrant is called the reverse regenerative (Rev. ) braking operation. V1 and I2 are positive, and I1 and V2 are negative. Each mode has two conditions: V1 > V2 and V1 < V2.
Other switches and diodes are open. In this case capacitors C 1 , C 2 , and C 3 are charged via the circuit VH–S1–C1–D5–C2–D6–C3–S10, and the voltage across capacitors C1, C2, and C3 is increasing. 12 W, and the voltage deduction is 2VD = 1 V. 2b: switches S2, S3, and S4 are closed and diodes D8, D9, and D9 are conducted. Other switches and diodes are open. In this case capacitor C1 (C2 and C3) is discharged via the circuit S2(S3 and S4)–VL–D8(D9 and D10)–C1(C2 and C3), and the voltage across capacitor C1 (C2 and C3) is decreasing.
Usually, large k causes large currents and power losses. For each mode there is a minimum conduction duty kmin. When k = kmin the input and output currents are zero. 4 Switching Frequency f In this paper the repeating frequency f = 50 kHz was selected. Actually, switching frequency f can be selected in the range between 10 kHz and 500 kHz. Usually, the higher the frequency, the lower the current ripples. L. , Four-quadrant operating Luo-converter, Power Supply Technologies and Applications, Xi’an, China, 3, 82, 2000.