By Wynell Graves
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A 2004 MIT study and an earlier paper published by the Society of Automotive Engineers identify a method to exploit the characteristics of fuel ethanol substantially better than mixing it with gasoline. The method presents the possibility of leveraging the use of alcohol to achieve definite improvement over the cost-effectiveness of hybrid electric. The improvement consists of using dual-fuel direct-injection of pure alcohol (or the azeotrope or E85) and gasoline, in any ratio up to 100% of either, in a turbocharged, high compression-ratio, small-displacement engine having performance similar to an engine having twice the displacement.
Second generation processes can also be used with plants such as grasses, wood or agricultural waste material such as straw. Production process The basic steps for large scale production of ethanol are: microbial (yeast) fermentation of sugars, distillation, dehydration, and denaturing (optional). Prior to fermentation, some crops require saccharification or hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as cellulose and starch into sugars. Saccharification of cellulose is called cellulolysis. Enzymes are used to convert starch into sugar.
However, the above-mentioned law used to exclude GAIAX becomes a trouble on the market of their fuel alcohol. Moreover, the prospect of marketing doesn't stand because disgust to "High density alcoholic fuel" of the consumer in Japan strongly remains by a longtime campaign, too at all. Chapter- 4 Butanol Fuel Butanol may be used as a fuel in an internal combustion engine. Because its longer hydrocarbon chain causes it to be fairly non-polar, it is more similar to gasoline than it is to ethanol.