Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Antimicrobial Drug by Trevor J. Franklin, George Alan Snow

By Trevor J. Franklin, George Alan Snow

The topic is one in every of significant curiosity in uncomplicated microbiology and infectious illnesses and the ebook is a identified vintage.

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The structure of the microbial metabolite isonicotinic acid can be seen to resemble that of isoniazid. 16). This enzyme, abbreviated to InhA, catalyzes the NADH-dependent reduction of the 2-franj~enoyl-acyl canier protein (ACP), an essential reaction in the elongation of fatty acids. Longchain substrates containing between 16 and 18 carbon atoms are preferentially used by InhA, an observation which implicates the reductase in the biosynthesis of the mycolic acids. Inhibition of the biosynthesis of mycolic acids therefore disrupts the assembly of the mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex and causes the loss of cell viability.

In vitro evidence obtained with a cmde broken cell preparation from Mycobacterium smegmatis indicates that ethambutol inhibits the transfer of a hexa-arabinosfuranosyl unit, from the phospho-decaprenol canier complex, to arabinan. Most clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to ethambutol have mutations in embB. The molecular target of ethambutol therefore seems to be arabinosyl transferase, with the product of the embB gene being the most important. The mechanism of inhibition of the arabinosyl transferases by ethambutol remains to be established and will probably await the purification of the enzymes, which are predicted to be integral membrane proteins with multiple anchoring, transmembrane domains and an external domain.

2 a ^% i BS £% ffi 1 1 S^ tf^ SS i tf^ £ ^ i i \SiiS^& i i ^& C? foil ' s i l ^ ff^fi^ O&'s'ffl'S'l&fi** « %^ i l l ^ ^ i %iH i i \M ^S i \^ ^ ^ i i ^w %^ S i %^ %3^ ^S %p%^ i %M ^ ^ % i vji i i ^ B*! B*! i W^ ^% «»& i ^ ^ 1 1 £°1 ^ Fungal infections (mycoses) pose an ever-increasing threat to health across the world. Immunocompromised individuals, including AIDS patients, those on immunosuppressive drugs following organ transplantation, cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, people recovering from major surgery and patients receiving prolonged antibacterial treatment, are all at risk from infections caused by a variety of fungal pathogens.

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